Preparation for Ministry

I have only been able to think of the New Foundation Fellowship as a group of people banded together to help and strengthen one another in the work; and I have only been able to think of the work as proclaiming the everlasting gospel preached by the apostles and George Fox.…The people who are traveling and speaking really need help. Team work is the name of the game. And so, ideally, the NFF is, or ought to be, a fellowship of people doing different kinds of work…all related to one steadying central purpose—to proclaim the everlasting gospel to the inhabitants of the earth and to build on the gospel foundation and to find fellowship in the work….But if New Foundation becomes something that draws attention to itself and invites speculation regarding a variety of possible future purposes and functions, then it will be time to remind ourselves that some very important work was done before the name New Foundation began to be used….There is much work to be done (Benson, A Personal Statement, 5/15/86).

In this paragraph, Lewis Benson identifies the purpose of New Foundation work to be the preaching of the gospel to as many new people as we can reach. Lewis was aware that New Foundation could become a religious organization with numerous purposes and activities, for example, teaching Friends history or theology, printing, publicizing and selling historical writings, or turning inward to endlessly examine and set standards for a proper spiritual stance. He was concerned that traveling to minister the gospel, which he saw as the principle and foremost function of New Foundation, could become a sideline, one of many worthwhile activities. Like Martha, New Foundation could become “careful and troubled about many things” and lose “the one thing needful.” According to Lewis, the one thing needful is to preach the Everlasting Gospel to the inhabitants of the earth; this is the work, whether or not the name New Foundation is associated with it.

Not all of us will be given this particular work to do, but that does not mean any can be excused from acknowledging and committing to this central purpose: to see the gospel preached. Though you may not be traveling to minister yourself, you still have an important role to play. As Lewis points out, this is team work.  So, this evening, in addition to describing preparation for ministry, I will also look at preparation for those not called to prophetic ministry, who yet can contribute to the transforming work of the gospel.

Before one prepares to minister, one must first discern whether or not one is called by God to do this particular work. It is not words, concepts, or doctrines that God calls a person to minister. The substance of gospel ministry is the eternal, creative power of the living, personal God. Words arise to lend form to and to purvey the power of God that is received and felt within. In and of themselves, words and concepts cannot conjure this power, nor can they describe it, if the power is not first inwardly felt. This power of God is the source, the beginning point of ministry and is identified by Fox as Christ. “I said if the power of God…spoke in man or woman it was Christ” (Journal, 96), and again, “who feels the power of Christ, feels Christ, for he is the power of God” (Works, 7:175).

The source of ministry is Christ, the power of God. The fruit or end purpose of true ministry is to bring people into liberty and freedom, into unity and fellowship in the Spirit. If, when hearing the gospel preached, people feel the Seed stirring in their hearts and then follow the implications of that quickening movement, their lives are radically transformed. In the following statement, Fox compares the effects of this enlivening ministry arising from the power of God to the effects of lifeless ministry that originates in man’s self-will:

For the ministry of Christ Jesus and his teaching bringeth into liberty and freedom; but the ministry that is of man and by man, and which stands in the will of man, bringeth into bondage, and under the shadow of death and darkness. And therefore none can be a minister of Christ Jesus but in the eternal Spirit, which was before the Scriptures were given forth; for if they have not his spirit, they are none of his. Though they may have his light to condemn them that hate it, yet they can never bring any into unity and fellowship in the Spirit, except they be in it (Journal, 17).

It is important to discern whether or not one is called to minister the gospel, for ministry that is of man and by man does not liberate man. It misleads people, or at the very least causes them to prejudge all ministry as useless or destructive.

Thus, the source of true ministry is the power of God, and the fruit of that ministry is the liberation of the captive human spirit. Between the source and the act stands the minister who loves the Light and cultivates the gift of spiritual discernment by faithfully assuming the daily cross. As the minister loves the Light, he will distinguish words that follow and adhere to the Spirit of God known within from those ideas that are of his own making; he will see the difference between the wheat and the chaff. Comparing words that are inspired with those that are self-willed, the minister begins to sense that speaking from one’s own will is clumsy and seldom accurate. Such words feel continuously disengaged from meaning and detached from authenticity. The minister never feels “whole and at ease in that condition” but in misery. He desires to live but cannot live authentically and so waits lifeless and blank, knowing it is only the giver of life who can make “a fruitful field out of the barren wilderness” of one’s soul.

We all have heard that Christ’s followers are an humble lot, and some would see humility as an aim to which one constantly and diligently aspires. Because the minister has sensed the clumsy inaccuracies of speaking from his own will, he knows humility intimately; he feels a continual absence of life in self-willed speech. Without sensing the standard of truth, the true foundation within, the minister feels confused, empty, and awkward.

The minister does not need to aspire to be humble; it is a constant condition that is obscured only by the flimsiest attempts at social convention, the ways of the world. He knows minute by minute his alienation from God and his naked spiritual state. Jesus’s statement is constantly before him: for without me ye can do nothing (Jn. 15:5b). The minister knows fear, that he can say nothing truly living, fully cogent, or significant in his own power, and consequently feels almost at every moment the discomfort of being in a world that values self-confidence and self-assertion, even at the price of self-delusion.

Ministers hold to the awareness of their own ineptitude, first because it’s true, and second because they have come to know the promise fulfilled in them, that the real life and power does come from God. This daily cross, this mortification, is a necessary preamble to knowing God’s power and glory, just as Christ’s death and entombment preceded his resurrection to power and glory. Ministers die to themselves and wait to be resurrected to life in Christ. They seek God with their whole mind, heart, soul, and strength because they experience life and sustenance solely in Christ. For those who would say, “Come on now, life doesn’t have to be that hard,” the response is as Jesus said to Peter, “you savourest not the things that be of God, but those that be of men” (Mt.16:23).

…said the LORD: but to this man will I look, even to him that is poor and of a contrite spirit, and trembleth at my word (Isa. 66:2).

Then said I, Ah, Lord God! behold, I cannot speak: for I am a child. But the LORD said to me, Say not, I am a child: for you shall go to all that I shall send thee, and whatsoever I command thee thou shalt speak. Be not afraid of their faces: for I am with thee to deliver thee, saith the LORD.  Then the LORD put forth his hand, and touched my mouth. And the LORD said to me, Behold, I have put my words in your mouth.  See, I have this day set thee over the nations and over the kingdoms, to root out, and to pull down, and to destroy, and to throw down, to build, and to plant (Jer. 1:6-10).

Thus, to prepare to receive God’s Word is to love truth to such an extent that one cannot help but see one’s own poverty of spirit. This passage from Jeremiah shows the utter leveling of the minister’s ego; he knows he has nothing to say, that he is a child. Because the minister has discerned and accepted this, he, as an empty vehicle, is prepared to carry the Word of the Lord, for he is one who reveres His words.

The leveling that has already taken place in the minister’s heart must likewise occur outwardly in the world. The minister works to level the nations and the kingdoms, “to root out, and to pull down, and to destroy, and to throw down.”  Then the building and the planting of the Lord can take place in the world, just as it has already taken place in the leveled ground of the minister’s heart. In chapter 13 of Mark, while the disciples admire the temple, Jesus tells them that all the fine buildings will be thrown down. He elaborates on the disorientation involving even the shaking of celestial powers, all of which precedes the coming of the Son of Man.

Because the minister points out the faulty foundation, because he pulls down and uproots what is meant for destruction, the minister is resented or feared. The minister, in all charity, is obligated to bring to light the carefully crafted delusions by which people are living. The sound of the voice, the Word, causes terror in those who fear for their worldly lives.

This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased; hear ye him. And when the disciples heard it, they fell on their face, and were sore afraid (Mt. 17:5b-6).

The people of God are resented by their worldly brothers, as Abel was resented and attacked by envious Cain. Today, ministers aren’t usually hanged, stoned, beaten, or incarcerated, but the violent emotions which provoked such behavior are as virulent today as they ever were, and the minister must remember the cause behind the emotional abuse he will endure. Because he disrupts comfortable delusions, he will be accused of being uncaring or negative. Because he claims that there is such a thing as Truth and that human beings can know and speak from it, he will be called arrogant or elite. Should his or any family member’s real or imagined behavior not stand up to social scrutiny, he will be discredited within the social group. Whatever has the potential for neutralizing the effect of the minister’s work will be used against him, because the minister strikes at the constructions which keep people from feeling their real poverty and nakedness, feeling their real need for God.

For my people have committed two evils; they have forsaken me the fountain of living waters, and hewed them out cisterns, broken cisterns, that can hold no water (Jer. 2:13).

It is the unwelcome work of the minister to see and say when life – symbolized by water in this passage – is poured away and wasted in that which is man-made and faulty, the hewn and cracked cisterns.

In the book of Revelation, an angel gives the evangelist a little book and tells him to eat it up; it will make his belly bitter, but it shall be in his mouth sweet as honey. After John has done as the angel commanded and found it to be just as he predicted – sweet as honey in his mouth and in his belly bitter – the angel then says to him: Thou must prophesy again before many peoples, and nations, and tongues, and kings (Rev. 10:9-11). One can expect unpleasant responses to one’s ministry; one can expect a bitter belly after the sweetness of ministering. And one must prophesy before many people, just as the angel in Revelation says, just as Lewis points out in the paragraph quoted at the beginning of this essay.

Benson defined the New Foundation Fellowship as “a fellowship of people doing different kinds of work that is all related to one steadying central purpose – to proclaim the everlasting gospel to the inhabitants of the earth and to build on the gospel foundation and to find fellowship in the work.” The work of the minister is to proclaim the gospel that people may experience the new and living way. Those with elders’ gifts can then build upon the gospel foundation by nurturing and encouraging the community in faith. Clerks, teachers, and administrators, the leaders of the community, are in a pivotal position between the minister and the community. Without the assistance of these leaders, the gospel proclamation will not move through and leaven the social group. Too often people gifted with leadership ability are more devoted to self-serving ends than to the gospel. Jesus’s harshest criticism is for these chiefs, leaders, and managers of the vineyard:

A certain man planted a vineyard, and set an hedge about it, and digged a place for the winevat, and built a tower, and let it out to husbandmen, and went into a far country. And at the season he sent to the husbandmen a servant, that he might receive from the husbandmen of the fruit of the vineyard. And they caught him, and beat him, and sent him away empty. And again he sent unto them another servant; and at him they cast stones, and wounded him in the head, and sent him away shamefully handled. And again he sent another; and him they killed, and many others; beating some, and killing some. Having yet therefore one son, his well-beloved, he sent him also last unto them, saying, They will reverence my son. But those husbandmen said among themselves, This is the heir; come, let us kill him, and the inheritance shall be our’s. And they took him, and killed him, and cast him out of the vineyard. What shall therefore the lord of the vineyard do? he will come and destroy the husbandmen, and will give the vineyard unto others. And have you not read this scripture; The stone which the builders rejected is become the head of the corner: This was the Lord’s doing, and it is marvelous in our eyes? (Mk. 12:1-12)

When the managers choose to work against the messengers, God puts the managers to death and gives the vineyard to others. When the elders choose to work against the ministers, the elders are already spiritually dead, and should they persist in idolizing power, they will remain so.

Though it is often the case, ministers and elders are not always at loggerheads. When a love for and commitment to the gospel is present in both elder and minister, they experience gospel fellowship, the third and final element mentioned by Lewis in describing what New Foundation ought to be. Gospel fellowship is not the same as a confluence of personal agendas. It is instead the love Jesus first received from the Father and then commanded his disciples to know and to have for one another. We, too, must first receive this same love from God. When this authentic love is received and manifested among disciples of Christ, it does appeal powerfully to people and draws them toward the Kingdom.

Preaching the gospel, supporting the work of the minister, building upon the gospel foundation,  all these different kinds of work first require an inclination of the heart and mind to love the truth. Opening to the truth, we are freed from self-serving delusions and prepared to receive the fulfillment of the promise, the Light of Christ. Only when Christ, the power of God, is received, can the gospel be ministered. Then can the elder nurture the minister and the community; then is gospel fellowship present and apparent among us. However, if the Light is hated and spurned because we’d rather not see the evil we do for the sake of worldly advantage, if we choose to remain in deceit which is contrary to the Light, there can be no real fellowship, no gospel order within our community, and the minister will depart to work elsewhere. Loving the truth is the preparation needed for each and everyone among us.


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In Him We Live, and Move, and Have Our Being

In the preface to Christianity and Civilisation, first delivered as Gifford Lectures in 1947, the Swiss theologian Emil Brunner sought “to formulate and to justify [his] conviction that only Christianity is capable of furnishing the basis of a civilisation which can rightly be described as human”(v). A civilization is largely determined by the prevailing answers that its various cultures give to basic questions about being, truth, time, man’s place in the universe, meaning, justice, freedom, and creativity, and these are the topics Brunner examines in Christianity and Civilisation. In his lecture “The Problem of Meaning,” he asserts:

Apart from the answer of the Christian Gospel…the most important solution of the problem of meaning within Western history is that of Greek philosophy(63).

Narrowing his exploration to these two worldviews, Brunner traces each of their origins and principles, and the effects of each upon Western civilization throughout historical periods and into our own modern time.

In this preface, Brunner speaks of his hesitancy to take on this work, feeling a disproportion between the topic and his “equipment for dealing with it,” as it is a vast subject requiring expertise in many areas. He commits himself to this labor, however, as he believes it to be a topic in urgent need of explication.

A feeling of urgency likewise compels me to look at these two prevailing Western worldviews, but within a greatly narrowed scope: one encounter between a minister of the Christian gospel and some Athenian philosophers: Paul’s sermon given in the middle of the first century on the Areopagus (Hill of Ares) to the Stoics and Epicureans, as recorded in Acts 17. This encounter is the earliest record of the Christian gospel confronting Greek humanism, and so Paul’s impressions, actions, and statements are worth close examination, as they provide inspired insight into the fundamental differences between these two worldviews, differences that were apparent to each of their proponents, but whose significance was fully understood only by the Apostle who, having been given Christ, the wisdom of God, had superseded the parameters of mind-bound philosophy. As George Fox said, “They that have Christ within have that which is above the heathen philosophies.”

Through this exercise, I hope to introduce Friends to the claim (or to substantiate it, for those already familiar) that original prophetic, primitive Christianity differs from the precepts informing Liberal Quaker belief and practice today, based as they are upon suppositions whose roots lie in Greek metaphysics, and not prophetic faith. The one thing needful–discovered, proclaimed, and suffered for by early Friends, as well as the prophets and apostles before them–has been lost to our religious society, and I hope that those who share my concern for reclaiming prophetic Quaker faith–or who are willing to hear more of this matter–will later turn to Brunner’s lecture series for a more comprehensive treatment of the differences between these two worldviews: Gifford Lectures.

In the following paragraphs, which are taken from his lecture “Man in the Universe,” Brunner sets out the fundamental conception of Greek humanism; in the second paragraph, he presents the contrasting principle of Christian humanism:

[Greek humanism] Man discovers in himself that which distinguishes him from the animal and nature as a whole and elevates him above, the Nous or the Logos, that spiritual principle which underlies all specifically human activity and gives man’s work the character and content of human dignity. Now, this Nous or Logos is, at the same time, the principle which links mankind with the divine; the Logos is not merely the principle of human thought and meaningful action, but also that divine force which orders the world and makes it a Cosmos. It is the divine spark in human reason by which alone man emancipates himself from nature and places himself above it. It is that same divine spark in his reason in which he experiences the divinity of his innermost being….Just as the divine Logos permeates nature and orders it, so it also permeates and orders man. But in man this divine principle becomes conscious knowledge. It is in the recognition of himself as partaker in the divine Logos that man becomes conscious of his specific essence and value; his humanity is, at the same time, divinity. [Underlining is mine in this and other quoted passages.]

In Biblical revelation the continuum of primitive mind is disrupted in an entirely different manner….God is no more the immanent principle of the world, but its Lord and Creator. He, the Lord-creator, alone is divine….Man in spite of every thing he has and is, with his spiritual as well as natural powers, is not divine. He is a creature…Man alone is created in the image of God…And this imago dei is the principle of Christian humanism as distinguished from Greek….man’s being created in the image of God does not imply any kind of divine spiritual substance in man, but only his relation to God….Christian humanism therefore, as distinguished from the Greek, is of such a kind that the humane character of existence is not automatically a possession of man, but is dependent on his relation to God, and remains a matter of decision (77-79).

Some forms of false worship–idolatry–are easier to recognize than others: the lust and determination to secure social position and power; to indulge in animal sensuality; or to wield brute force are obvious signs of error. More difficult to discern are the indicators of a subtle idolatry in which natural human power is worshiped for its ability to orchestrate the good life, indicated by elevation of values and principles to highest prominence. Such idolatry is rarely challenged in Scripture, perhaps because it comes to the fore only when civic life is stable and free from grosser error. Paul’s sermon on the Areopagus is the earliest example of a challenge to this form idolatry, namely, a challenge to the proposition that divinity resides within human beings as a natural attribute.

Before beginning a verbatim account of Paul’s sermon, the scripture writer provides some background information about Paul’s situation in Athens: While waiting for two helpers to join him, Paul assesses the spiritual condition of the city and finds its idolatry distressing. He goes to the synagogue to reason with both Jews and Gentiles, and argues in the marketplace with whoever is willing. He preaches the gospel of Jesus and the resurrection, and the philosophers are privately critical and insulting, but curious to hear more. Then they all go to the Areopagus where Athenians regularly resort to hear the latest ideas, and Paul begins to preach:

Ye men of Athens, I perceive that in all things ye are too superstitious. For as I passed by, and beheld your devotions, I found an altar with this inscription, TO THE UNKNOWN GOD. Whom therefore ye ignorantly worship, him declare I unto you (Acts 17:22-23).

At the start of his sermon, Paul sets out a major difference between his faith and the condition of his hearers: Paul knows God, and the philosophers do not. The Athenians, by their own admission, claim God is “Unknown,” and therefore, by implication, unknowable. It is experiential knowledge of God that enables us to worship Him as He would be worshiped: in spirit and in truth. Jesus draws the connection between knowledge of God and true worship when he speaks to the Samaritan:

Ye worship ye know not what: we know what we worship: for salvation is of the Jews. But the hour cometh, and now is, when the true worshippers shall worship the Father in spirit and in truth: for the Father seeketh such to worship him. God is a Spirit: and they that worship him must worship him in spirit and in truth (Jn. 4:22-24).

Unlike the Greeks who worship an “Unknown God,” Paul does know God, and is thus enabled to declare God’s work and humanity’s relation to Him. The following precepts in Paul’s sermon would have been foreign to the Athenians:

God that made the world and all things therein, seeing that he is Lord of heaven and earth, dwelleth not in temples made with hands; Neither is worshipped with men’s hands, as though he needed any thing, seeing he giveth to all life, and breath, and all things (24-25).

Paul contends that God is Creator and Lord, and thus the giver and ruler of life; man receives life and is subject to God’s power. He is not, as the Greeks would have it, a builder and maker of ideas (notional speculations) or buildings (temples) that house God; for God does not dwell in temples made with hands (made by man). Rather, it is God who acts and reveals himself to man. We wait upon him to move, like the Spirit upon the face of the waters. We wait upon the Lord; this is the way of prophetic Quaker worship.

And [God] hath made of one blood all nations of men for to dwell on all the face of the earth, and hath determined the times before appointed, and the bounds of their habitation; that they should seek the Lord, if haply they might feel after him, and find him, though he be not far from every one of us (26-27).

In saying that God has made “of one blood all the nations of men,” Paul identifies man’s condition as universal. What is the condition that is true for all people in all times and places? It is the felt need for God, not the possession of “that of God in every one,” but the need for God. A sense of alienation from God suffuses each human psyche, and leads to a search to overcome the corresponding anxiety that is felt by every person in every time and in every nation. God has decreed each person will feel his or her need for God, and, in feeling this need, should seek the Lord.

Idolatry corrupts the search. Some poor substitute for God is found, the soul assuaged, and the search stopped. Some item, some loyalty, some pleasure, some theory, some circumstance, some obligation, some obsession stands in for God, numbing or distracting man from his true feeling of need. God is ready to meet our need for Him, and when He reveals Himself, then, and only then, is our felt need truly met: life’s meaning and fulfillment is known.

For in him we live, and move, and have our being; as, since, as also of your own poets have said, For we are also his offspring (28).

We are His “offspring,” a word denoting kinship, relationship. Says Brunner: “For man’s being created in the image of God does not imply any kind of divine spiritual substance in man, but only his relation to God“(78). We are separate from but related to God:

He came unto his own, and his own received him not. But to as many as received him, to them gave he power to become the sons of God (Jn. 1:11-12).

Forasmuch then as we are the offspring of God, we ought not to think that the Godhead is like unto gold, or silver, or stone, graven by art and man’s device. And the times of this ignorance God winked at; but now commandeth all men every where to repent (Acts 17:29-30).

God has ever had a plan for humanity’s restoration, Paul avers. Now the time is come that a new thing is commanded: repentance. We are to repent of our attributing divinity to ourselves (“ye shall be as gods” [Gen. 3:5]); that is, repent of the claim “that of God” resides within, when God is yet unknown, yet unrevealed. God is not mocked. True authority, the author of our faith, suffers outside the gate of our habitation, and we must become subject to his enlarging jurisdiction. The world in the human heart is judged:

Because he hath appointed a day, in the which he will judge the world in righteousness by that man whom he hath ordained; whereof he hath given assurance unto all men, in that he hath raised him from the dead (31).

It is a foolish idea to the Greeks that a human being might be raised from the dead; it is beyond reason. For the Epicureans, death was the end of all things, and for the Stoics, death was followed by the soul being absorbed into that from which it sprang.

But we preach Christ crucified, unto the Jews a stumblingblock, and unto the Greeks foolishness; But unto them which are called, both Jews and Greeks, Christ the power of God, and the wisdom of God (I Cor. 1:23).

Paul speaks beyond the Greeks understanding, beyond their reason. Through repentance we condemn to death the reprobate mind: having seen that our inward condition is inadequate to meet our felt need. It is a universal verdict of the universal judgment appointed by God. We are given to know the risen one, even Christ Jesus, who is ordained by God to judge and to speak to this condition, this fallen state. We are raised to life in unity with him that has been raised from the dead. Beyond our comprehension, our reason, beyond our philosophy, we are given to know the inward resurrection experientially.

In the final words of his sermon, Paul presents the most conclusive difference between Christian faith and the philosophical mysticism of the Greeks. It is a person we encounter in the risen Christ, and this person, Christ Jesus, becomes the foundation for our life. Impersonal mystical openings occur, but only foreshadow the subsequent restoration of personal relationship with God, drawing us to Christ, his Word. Lewis Benson states in his essay “Prophetic Quakerism”:

Wherever the philosophical type of mysticism has found expression within the limits of the Christian community, it has sought to reduce the saving Word of God addressed inwardly by the Voice of Jesus Christ to something less personal (The Truth is Christ, 16).

That seventeenth-century Friends understood the person of Jesus Christ to be inwardly revealed is apparent in George Fox’s most frequently used phrase that expressed the basic tenet of Quaker faith: “Christ is come to teach his people himself.” Christ is active: coming to us and teaching us as only a person can. The basic law of man’s being is to live by the Word of God. We must come into an experiential knowledge of Jesus Christ, the Word of God.

The statements in Paul’s sermon on the Areopagus accord with Jesus’s and first Friends’ teachings, because every one of them spoke from the same source: the knowledge and power of God. As their source was the gospel, the power of God, there was unity in their understanding.

  • There is one God who is Creator and Lord. (25-26)
  • God has made all humanity to feel their need of him, for in relationship with him our being is completed and perfected. (26-28)
  • God is not like that which we can devise by thinking or making. (29)
  • It is time to repent and end the ignorance of idolatry. (30)
  • Each is to be judged in his spiritually deadened state and resurrected to life in Christ. (31-32)

In the face of last century’s Liberal Quaker communities turning away from prophetic faith and, in its stead, adopting a philosophy of values, Lewis Benson re-introduced the prophetic, primitive Christianity held forth by George Fox and other first Friends. Benson also discovered in the work of theologian Emil Brunner (referred to at the start of this paper) a worthy analysis of the progress and consequences of the loss of Christian understanding in history, its usurpation having begun in the alternative metaphysics of Greek philosophy.

The ground, root, and foundation of the Quakers’ faith…begins with belief in God who created all things out of nothing and who created man as a being with whom he could converse. Man is a being whose creator visits him and speaks to him, demanding a reply. Brunner says, “God has a different relation to man from what he has to other creatures….He has intercourse with man; He reveals His will to him and expects obedience and trust from him. It is not that man as he is in himself bears God’s likeness, but, rather, that man is designated for, and called to, a particular relation with God.”…The conversational relationship with God for which man was designated is essential to man’s life. When this relationship is broken, the ground of man’s life is broken and instead of life, he knows only death. When man is separated from the word that God speaks to him, then death and darkness overtake him….There is no coming out of darkness and death while man is alienated from God and does not listen to his word or fails to obey his command. This dialogic relationship to God is not a special religious consciousness but it is the basic law of man’s being (Catholic Quakerism, 13-14).

Benson, Brunner, early Friends, and the apostle Paul all find unity in the truth of prophetic Christian faith. The unity of their understanding witnesses to the universality of the God’s call to each person to come into a conversational relationship with Him, and furthermore, witnesses to the potential for each person to answer His call in righteousness.  In every century, place, and culture, there are those of us who have come to know experientially the only true God, and Jesus Christ, whom He has sent, whom He raised from the dead, the one in whom we live, and move, and have our being.









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That They All May Be One

In the summer of 1999, I had an opportunity to spend some time with a retired zoologist and his wife, Joseph and Elsa Pickvance, at their cottage in Birmingham, England. Although this professor’s livelihood had come from teaching and administrative work in the department of zoology at the University of Birmingham, his heart had been given throughout his long life to the study of George Fox and the early Quaker movement. Nearing the age of 90, he daily continued his investigation of their writings.

Having arrived at their home that summer evening and having enjoyed a pleasant supper, I listened as he spoke of the origin of his interest in seventeenth-century Friends and of their significance in the history of the human spirit. At one point in the conversation, his tone grew intense. I cannot recall his exact words but will give you the gist of what he said:

It must be that humanity is continuing to evolve. If it has taken four million years to progress from the first bipedal human-like creature, we can expect that it will take some time yet for us to reach our fulfillment.

He was expressing hope and anticipation, and it reminded me of others who, like him, have anticipated the change to come in our experience and understanding of what it is to be human and to be of the human race.

Tradition and the Way Forward

Among those who have anticipated such a transformation of humanity were first-generation Friends. They saw their mission to be the furtherance of this change, and so they traveled throughout their country and to far parts of the world in order to preach the Word, Christ, the power of God, for they believed that this preaching was the single essential act that would precipitate the needed transformation within the human heart. In this their mission, early Friends were in unity with the apostles of the first century. Like the apostles, they baptized with the holy Spirit through preaching the Word. Here Fox speaks of the apostle Peter in his ministry to a Roman centurion and his family:

And while Peter spoke to Cornelius’s family, the holy Spirit fell upon them who heard the Word that he preached (Acts 10:44). So the holy Spirit was given through the preaching of the Word, Christ, and the holy Spirit doth baptize them – through which baptism the wheat or seed of God is gathered into God’s garner [Works, 6:292]

Early Friends saw that the history of Israel was a history of humanity’s progress toward anew way of being, of becoming a people gathered into God’s garner. They drew heavilyfrom the Bible because it recorded the appearance and realization in history of the new way of being. For them the Bible was a sealed document which could be interpreted only by first experiencing the presence of God or Christ Within, which brought with it a radical shift of the locus of identity. From this inspired vantage point, a new and vital meaning could be distilled from stories, events and characters of the Bible.

There is a passage in George Fox’s Journal in which he enumerates the events recorded in Scripture that have shaped Hebrew history over the past four millennia. In this passage, he interprets this historical movement as a metaphor for the individual’s growth toward spiritual wholeness. In other words, the journey of a solitary inward soul is magnified onto the screen of the historical record. The salvation history of Israel is an archetype for the individual’s spiritual journey.

In this excerpt we may not catch the meaning of all the concepts, but throughout the passage, we can look for the metaphor that Fox finds. The metaphor is that spiritual growth is like a journey that proceeds through definite stages. Phrases like “entrance into,” “passed through,” “reaches through,” “prepares the way” indicate Fox sees spiritual development as linear, like a journey, moving from a point of lesser to a point of greater realization.

I saw death reigned over them from Adam to Moses, from the entrance into transgression till they came to the ministration of condemnation, which restrains people from sin that brings death. Then, when the ministration of Moses is passed through, the ministry of the prophets comes to be read and understood, which reaches through the figures, types and shadows unto John, the greatest prophet born of woman; whose ministration prepares the way of the Lord by bringing down the exalted mountains and making straight paths. And as this ministration is passed through, an entrance comes to be known into the everlasting kingdom [Journal, 31].

To understand Fox’s metaphoric analysis, we must know the stories to which he refers; the stories are set-ups for lessons that teach us the essentials of our inward existence. In the past two decades, scholars have come to recognize the central importance of the story in the scriptures. Listening to and letting the story work upon us is a very ancient and now newly legitimate approach to the Bible.

In his book Meeting Jesus Again for the First Time, Marcus J. Borg explores some of the key stories of the Bible for their spiritual significance. Delving below the surface of literal facts in a Bible story can bring to light useful information about our own human condition. Fox lamented the barren way Scriptures were read in his own day when he says:

I saw also how people read the Scriptures without a right sense of them, and without duly applying them to their own states [Journal, 31].

Three hundred years later, we see this same approach to the Bible; people are still reading it at a superficial, literal level. In this passage Borg discusses the Exodus story as it relates to our own human condition.

What is this story about? Most basically, it is a story of bondage, liberation, a journey, and a destination. It begins with the Hebrews as slaves in Egypt under the lordship of Pharaoh…for those enslaved it is a life of hard labor and groaning and meager rations, with enough to survive on, but not much more. The story then moves through the plagues and the liberation itself…Coming out from under the lordship of Pharaoh brings the people into the wilderness and sets them upon a journey that lasts for forty years, and the destination of the journey is the promised land, which symbolically is the place of God’s presence.

As a story about God and us, what is it saying? Our problem, according to this story, is that we live in Egypt, the land of bondage. We are slaves of an alien lord, the lord of Egypt, Pharaoh. It provocatively images the human condition as bondage, an image with both cultural-political and psychological-spiritual dimensions of meaning. It invites us to ask, “To what am I in bondage, and to what are we in bondage?”

The answer for most of us is “Many things.” We are in bondage to cultural messages about what we should be like and what we should pursue—messages about success, attractiveness, gender roles, the good life. We are in bondage to voices from our own past, and to addictions of various kinds.

The Pharaoh who holds us in bondage is inside of us as well as outside of us. Who is the Pharaoh within me who has me enslaved and who will not let me go? What instruments of fear and oppression does he use, this Pharaoh who tries everything to remain in control? What plagues must strike him? If the problem is bondage, the solution, of course, is liberation. In the story of the exodus itself, the liberation begins at night, in the darkness before dawn. It means leaving Egypt and the kingdom and dominion of Pharaoh. It involves passing through the sea to the other side, a passage from one kind of life to another. Liberation involves coming out from under the lordship of Pharaoh and the lordship of culture.

But liberation is not an end of the story. Rather, “the way out” leads to a journey through the wilderness. As a place beyond the domestication of culture, the wilderness is a place of fear and anxiety, where we erect one golden calf after another, and where we sometimes find ourselves longing for the security of Egypt…At least there was food in Egypt. But the wilderness is also a place where we are nourished by God, by water from the rock and bread from heaven. The journey lasts a long time—forty years…Its destination is life in the presence of God. Yet God is not simply the destination, but one who is known on the journey. It is a journeying toward God that is also with God.

Thus, as an epiphany of the human condition and the solution, the story of the exodus images the religious life as a journey from the life of bondage to life in the presence of God. Though we find ourselves in bondage to Pharaoh, it proclaims there is a way out. Through signs and wonders, through the great and mighty hand of God, God can liberate us, indeed wills our liberation, and yearns for our liberation, from life in bondage to culture to life as journeying with God [Borg, 124-125].

Borg refers to the Exodus story as one of three “macro-stories” at the heart of Scripture. These stories work at a deep level showing our sometimes unacknowledged experience of existence. We are held captives; we lack liberty. These stories point to liberation of the human spirit.

Like the other macro-stories of Scripture, this exodus story is painted with a broad brush; it presents a whole people in the throes of slavery, who then pass long years together in the wilderness. Applying this epic story to our own personal situation is necessary, according to Fox; this journey toward liberation is made singly and inwardly by each individual. The human condition is universal; at a deep level of our humanity, we all feel alone, confused, and out of control. The way out, the exodus, is available to us and that way out is found in the figurative message of the Scriptures. This line of progression, of growth and transformation can accommodate all people. We can move from spiritual slavery, alienation from God, and we can enter the Promised Land, that is, a dialogic relationship with God. That is God’s promise to our human race.

Preparing the Way: John the Baptist

I would like to focus on the liberation, the journey’s end, referred to in the Exodus story as the promised land and, in the quotation from Fox given earlier, as the entrance into the everlasting kingdom. Although I intend to look at Jesus who is in the kingdom, I will focus primarily on John the Baptist who immediately precedes Jesus, and thus prepares the way.

There is a narrative devise used in some stories of the Bible which consists of juxtaposing two like characters who differ from one another in some significant essential; this juxtaposition encourages the reader or hearer to compare two characters and so directs the reader’s attention to the significant idea through this discrepant element. Often the comparison is made between two men, usually brothers. As brothers have the same parents, and this suggests a similarity between them, whatever difference distinguishes them becomes that much more apparent.

Usually the older brother models the untransformed way of being, and the younger one embodies the transformed or more evolved state. Some examples of stories in which this narrative devise occurs are Cain and Abel, Jacob and Esau, and Joseph and his brothers. In the New Testament, we see this devise borrowed a number of times by Jesus, a good storyteller. The story of the Prodigal Son is probably the most familiar to us, with its sullen older brother who never ventures forth from his conventional life. This same narrative devise is apparent in the close connection and comparison of John the Baptist and Jesus, who are not brothers but are still related; their mothers were cousins, Luke tells us.

Luke is the only writer to give us details of John’s birth. Stories of births in the Bible are a good place to get a concise indication of what the person’s life is to be. Luke tells us John’s parents (Zacharias, a priest, and Elizabeth, of the priestly line of Aaron) were righteous people. An angel came to Zacharias and tells him they will have a son who will “make ready a people prepared for the Lord” [Luke 1:17b]. Zacharias is struck dumb because he doesn’t believe the angel and remains without his voice till John is born and named.

Six months later the same angel goes to Nazareth and this time speaks to a woman. The angel tells her that “that holy thing which shall be born of thee shall be called the Son of God” [v.35b]. Mary then goes to visit her cousin Elisabeth who carries John in her womb. Immediately upon hearing Mary’s greeting, Elisabeth feels the babe leap within. She’s filled with the Holy Ghost and says to Mary “Blessed art thou among women, and blessed is the fruit of thy womb” [v.42] and calls her “the mother of my Lord” [v.43]. After a three month visit, Mary leaves for home. Elisabeth then gives birth and calls her son John, at which her neighbors are surprised as none of her kindred is so named, and then they ask voiceless Zacharias what his son’s name is to be. He writes as he cannot speak, “His name is John” [v.63]. Immediately, he regains his voice and praises God.

These are just a few of the many details Luke gives us in this long first chapter of his book. From these details we can glean much information about Jesus and John. They are alike, we are being told. The same angel informs one of each of their parents about their arrivals and the names by which they are to be called. Their mothers are cousins; their parents are righteous; their births are close in time. John’s and Jesus’ lives are intertwined from the start. Later, as their ministries unfold, John will understand and foreshadow Jesus’s work and death as no one else does in the gospel narratives. There is a connection, a similarity between them.

Yet there are differences. What distinguishes Jesus who is in the kingdom from John who is not? There are differences in their births. John’s father, Zacharias, is the father of John, though through much of the story, he’s without a voice. The paternal parentage is marginalized in both of these births. John’s father is mute throughout the pregnancy, and Jesus’s human paternity is absent altogether, this in a culture which was unrelentingly patriarchal. The father’s role is increasingly less pronounced because a son of God is born, not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God [Jn. 1:13]. A son of God is not bound by the cultural constraints of male hierarchy or by any other cultural dictates, and that is also true for a daughter of God.

John’s birth precedes Jesus’s by six months. He comes before and prepares the way; later one of the primary refrains of his ministry is “Prepare ye the way of the Lord; make his paths straight.” And finally, it is clear even to John’s mother that Jesus is the Lord, not John. A mother’s acknowledgement that another woman’s baby is to have precedence over her own is an impelling indication that Jesus has preference before John. In his later ministry John says as much when he asserts: He it is, who coming after me, is preferred before me, whose shoe’s latchet I am not worthy to unloose [Jn. 1:27].

Luke concludes the story of John’s early life with this final verse in chapter one:

And the child grew, and waxed strong in spirit, and was in the wilderness till the day of his shewing to Israel [Lk. 1:80].

If we recall Marcus Borg’s account of the Exodus story with the Hebrews wandering in the wilderness for 40 years and also recall his statements about the wilderness, that it is a place beyond the domestication of culture, a place of freedom where God is encountered and known, we can form an understanding of who John becomes as he matures. Accordingly, we can see what qualities or characteristics accompany the person who is on the cusp of entering the kingdom. We want to know this, if we ourselves are seeking to enter.

John is free in the wilderness, unfettered by cultural norms. He wears camel skins for clothes and eats locusts and wild honey. He is outside the demands of conventional social life; Pharaoh can’t touch him. In his book Catholic Quakerism, Lewis Benson draws a profile of the “outsider” which John typifies.

The outsider finds a way of escape from the rigid patterns of civilized life by asserting his power of volition, and by deliberately choosing a pattern of life for himself that expresses his defiance of those social forces that are pressing men into a common mold. The outsider is therefore usually described as an existentialist [Benson, 71].

The outsider has been defined as one who is seeking for a religious solution to the problem of the meaning of existence without the help of the revealed religion of the Hebrew and Christian traditions. This means that he accepts, as part of the “givenness of life,” that there are no moral, social, or historical absolutes in it [Benson, 70].

Benson goes on to say that George Fox is the “man who perhaps ought to be the patron saint of ‘outsiders.’” Here Fox describes his activity prior to his hearing the voice which spoke to his condition:

Now during all this time I was never joined in profession of religion with any, but gave myself to the Lord, having forsaken all evil company, and taken leave of father and mother and all other relations, and traveled up and down as a stranger in the earth, which way the Lord inclined my heart, taking a chamber to myself in the town where I came, and tarrying sometimes a month, sometimes more, sometimes less in a place. For I durst not stay long in any place, being afraid both of professor and profane, lest, being a tender young man, I should be hurt by conferring much with either. For which reason I kept myself much as a stranger, seeking heavenly wisdom and getting knowledge from the Lord, and was brought off from outward things to rely wholly on the Lord alone [Journal, 10].

What else is there to know of the outsider, the one who is not conformed to this world, the one who makes preparation for entering the kingdom? Isaiah gives us the original pictorial language to express the state of the outsider with his existential concern for right living in a world that appears absurd and without meaning.

The voice of him that crieth in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the Lord, make straight in the desert a highway for our God. Every valley shall be exalted, and every mountain and hill shall be made low: and the crooked shall be made straight, and the rough places plain: And the glory of the Lord shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together: for the mouth of the Lord hath spoken it. The voice said, Cry. And he said, What shall I cry? All flesh is grass, and all the goodliness thereof is as the flower of the field. The grass withereth, the flower fadeth: because the spirit of the Lord bloweth upon upon it: surely the people is grass. The grass withereth, the flower fadeth: but the word of our God shall stand forever [Isa. 40:3-8].

As a type, John stands at the intermediate point between two ways of life—on the one hand, the secure but spiritually empty life of following the crowd’s obeisance to social or biological dictates, and on the other hand, the life lived in response to the authentic director of life, our Creator, and therefore life lived authentically. Between these two ways, the inauthentic conformity and the way of knowing God, is an emptiness that John in the wilderness typifies. He is not yet fully the being to come, but still only a voice, only a desire, only a will to be free. John’s asceticism, his separation from conventional life, his willingness to cast off all inauthenticity till nothing remains but a desire for wholeness distinguishes him. Pared down to unredeemed essentials, man is a voice solitary and crying out in the wilderness.

What did they expect to find when they went out into the wilderness? A man clothed in soft raiment [Lk. 7:25]? No, the wilderness is not soft. The people who come to John in the wilderness – and we construe this to mean the people who come to John’s inward state – undergo the emptiness of the desert where nothing can comfort or distract from the truth.

John’s baptism prepares the way, clears the space for the baptism which is to follow, that baptism with the holy Spirit. The same pattern of this two-step process, first the tearing down and clearing away to prepare space to build, can be found also in the apocalyptic chapters in the synoptic gospels; there must be a tearing down of the old structures before the new can arrive. John’s baptism is a cleansing removal of the old way. It is called in Mark a baptism of repentance for the remission of sins.

To repent is to want light more than darkness, even though that light compels us first, to see our deeds and ourselves for what we truly are, and second, to cast off that which obstructs our relationship with God. John calls us to level with ourselves, to level our mountainous egos and straighten out our crooked ways. God isn’t going to travel the distance to make his visit to us until we’ve prepared the way. We often see a comfortable, popular notion that God in his mercy and omnipotence can and will overcome any and all obstacles that we put in the path between Him and ourselves. The wisdom of our tradition is at variance with this popular, sin-enabling assumption. We need to prepare by choosing to see ourselves as we truly are; that is the judgment of the last day.

Behold, the Lord’s hand is not shortened, that it cannot save; neither his ear heavy, that it cannot hear: But your iniquities have separated between you and your God, and your sins have hid his face from you, that he will not hear [Isa. 59:1-2].

Baptism with the Holy Spirit

We have seen that there can be a variety of images in scripture to describe a single spiritual experience. The promised land, the kingdom of God, and the kingdom of heaven all describe the sought-after destination of knowing God’s presence. We see another phrase to describe the completion of the inward journey—Christ’s baptism with the holy Spirit for which John’s baptism has prepared the way. Says John in the book of Matthew:

I indeed baptize you with water unto repentance, but he that cometh after me is mightier than I, whose shoes I am not worthy to bear: he shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost, and with fire: Whose fan is in his hand, and he will thoroughly purge his floor, and gather his wheat into the garner; but he will burn up the chaff with unquenchable fire [Mt. 3:11-12].

The distinction between John’s water baptism and Christ’s baptism with fire and with the holy Ghost  is made in all four gospels and in Jesus’s first utterance in the book of Acts [Mk. 1:8, Lk. 3:16, Jn. 1:33, and Acts 1:4-5].

…commanded them that they should not depart from Jerusalem, but wait for the promise of the Father, which, saith he, ye have heard of me. For John truly baptized with water; but ye shall be baptized with the Holy Ghost not many days hence.

The importance given this distinction alerts us to look for the difference between the two baptisms. Unlike the repentance signified by John’s water baptism, the new and living way signified by Christ’s baptism with the holy Spirit is not within our human ability to effect. We do not decide if and when it is to occur; we can only prepare and then wait and watch. It is like vocal ministry within our meetings for worship. It is not planned beforehand, but instead, waited upon until the Word is received. Christ commands the apostles to wait for the promise of the Father before acting, before departing from Jerusalem to preach. “Watch” for the arrival of the Son of man says Jesus in the apocalyptic chapters in the gospels. There is no way that we can compel God to act; we can only prepare ourselves to receive, and then we wait.

Therefore, all wait patiently upon the Lord, whatsoever condition you be in; wait in the grace and truth that comes by Jesus, for if ye so do, there is a promise to you, and the Lord God will fulfill it in you. And blessed are all they indeed that do hunger and thirst after righteousness; they shall be satisfied with it. I have found it so, praised be the Lord who filleth with it, and satisfieth the desires of the hungry soul [Journal, 12-13].

If we do not yet know “the grace and truth that comes by Jesus,” to which Fox alludes, if we do not yet know the spirit in which we should wait upon the Lord, then we should ask ourselves: Is my soul hungry, or is it satiated? Hemingway once said that he needed to return to Africa in order “to work the fat off his soul.” If we feel depressed, bloated, or uncomfortable with our spiritual state, then we should look to John as our mentor, for John came neither eating nor drinking [Mt. 11:18]. If we hunger in our souls, we should go out to John in the wilderness, as many did, and learn the baptism of repentance.

The Promise Realized

The Quaker movement began with the discovery that God is with us, that we can hear and obey the will of our Creator, a will that is not our own—that we can enter the kingdom, the promised land, while we are yet here on earth and alive, and that we should seek this. Here is Fox’s powerful description of Life in unity with our Creator. Please note that he goes back to the Garden of Eden with his imagery – back to the beginning of the long journey to the promised land. Yet one more term for the journey’s destination is “the paradise of God.”

Now was I come up in spirit through the flaming sword into the paradise of God.  All things were new, and all the creation gave another smell unto me than before, beyond what words can utter. I knew nothing but pureness, and innocency, and righteousness, being renewed up into the image of God by Christ Jesus, so that I say I was come up to the state of Adam which he was in before he fell. The creation was opened to me, and it was showed me how all things had their names given them according to their nature and virtue…But I was immediately taken up in spirit, to see into another or more steadfast state than Adam’s in innocency, even into a state in Christ Jesus, that should never fall. And the Lord showed me that such as were faithful to him in the power and light of Christ, should come up into that state in which Adam was before he fell, in which the admirable works of the creation, and the virtues thereof, may be known, through the openings of that divine Word of wisdom and power by which they were made. Great things did the Lord lead me into, and wonderful depths were opened unto me, beyond what can by words be declared; but as people come into subjection to the spirit of God, and grow up in the image and power of the Almighty, they may receive the Word of wisdom, that opens all things, and come to know the hidden unity in the Eternal Being [Journal, 28-29].

We have here a description of the culminating, transcendent state toward which the Scriptures unswervingly have pointed us. All things were new, says Fox. This is a new state in which we feel Life in the Word, in which we sense the essence and power of things. We know them and can name them, as Adam could name the creatures, while he was yet in God’s image before the Fall [Gen. 2:19]. In the image and power of God where (ego/flesh has been crucified), we are given to know things for what they are, to know the truth that makes us free [Jn. 8:32]. To know reality as it is, apart from the distortions provoked by ego’s greed and fear, is the promise realized.

Beloved, now are we the sons of God, and it doth not yet appear what we shall be: but we know that, when he shall appear, we shall be like him; for we shall see him as he is [1 Jn. 3:2].

At that time we are anointed to preach the gospel. It is a call to preach deliverance to the captives of Pharaoh as well as those baptized solely of John. For as early Quaker minister Edward Burrough said: yea an absolute necessity was laid upon us, and wo [sic] unto us if we preached not the gospel [Works, 3:14].

The gospel message of Life often will be ignored or resented by those to whom it is preached. It can be a threat to those who have not known this visitation or have not been faithful to the measure given to them. Some do shut the door and shutter the windows of their hearts, in order to enjoy without disturbance the worldly treasures they’ve accumulated and stored within. Those who bring this message will be unwelcome by many, as they have been unwelcome throughout history: scorned, abused, and even killed. Because this ministry shares a common vocabulary and regard for Scriptures with Protestant and Catholic forms of Christianity, it is especially convenient today to dismiss it within liberal Quaker communities, where little care is taken to discover the essentials of Quaker heritage, and there is instead a comfortable skimming along the surface of a well-meaning and self-satisfied humanism.

For example, we Quakers learn that there is a peace testimony but do not learn the ground and basis for that testimony. If our peace testimony is the outcome of a privileged, educated class that can secure its needs and wants without resorting to physical violence, then we have little to offer a less privileged world. On the other hand, if our peace testimony were to be the result of coming into and knowing that inward peace given by Christ, our sanctuary, to which we hold throughout any trial, then, as did the early Friends, we could impart this power to the world, which is in need of a way to overcome evil. In our present state, our claim to be peace-loving is belied by behavior occurring within many of our meeting communities. For relief, we must resort to those who are trained in conflict resolution, rather than the Prince of Peace whom we do not know or receive.

Unity in the Truth

The title of this essay is taken from the seventeenth chapter of John, in which Jesus prays to the Father shortly before he is taken by the soldiers. The religious powers of the day that have been threatened by the revolutionary power, which Jesus has displayed, will shortly arrange his death. In the final opportunity before his arrest, Jesus prays for the ones who have been given him by the Father, the ones who have known that he was sent by the Father.

They are not of the world, even as I am not of the world. Sanctify them through thy truth: thy word is truth. As thou hast sent me into the world, even so have I also sent them into the world. And for their sakes I sanctify myself, that they also might be sanctified through the truth. Neither pray I for these alone, but for them also which shall believe on me through their word; That they all may be one; as thou, Father, art in me, and I in thee, that they also may be one in us: that the world may believe that thou has sent me [Jn. 17:16-21].

Becoming one in Christ is not a forfeiture of an individual’s integrity and bid for self-actualization. Look at the strong spokespeople for this discovery of Christ Within. The Apostle Paul, George Fox, Margaret Fell, William Dewsbury were all so very much individual in the way they conducted their lives that they could choose to separate themselves from the security of community life, as did Abraham, whose heirs in faith they were. Yet, they all were one in Christ, though separated by culture and millennia.

Now all loving the light, here no self can stand, but it is judged out with the light, and here all are in unity [Works, 7:61].

There are communities who claim to be in Christ and require conformity to man-made approximations of what they think that might entail. This is not the Quaker way, and first generation Quakers were vehemently opposed to this apostasy and ignorance among the so-called Christians of their day. They knew that all notions about God and Christ, and about religion must be shaken loose and removed before we can receive the kingdom that cannot be moved [He. 12:28].

This kingdom that cannot be moved is a dialogic relationship with God, which was foreseen by the prophets and the apostles. It would come to pass that God would pour out his spirit on all flesh, and all would prophesy [Joel 2:28]. Our Quaker heritage is the carrier of this understanding. If we are to be worthy of the name “Quaker,” we will learn a new way of being on the earth, and it will start with a fearless resolve to heed the truth, regardless of the consequences within our social group. We cannot serve both God and Mammon. It is up to us to choose the better thing. I conclude with Fox’s Epistle 194.

Dear Friends who have found the better part, and chosen the better thing, the one thing which lasteth forever, which is the ground of all true rejoicing and joy, in whom ye have all riches and life and blessings, and the immortal power, to be your crown and covering. And it may be, there will be a time of shearing and clipping; but the earth is the Lord’s, and fullness thereof. So, mind him to be your portion, and the seed Christ your all, and your life and fear not losing the fleece, for it will grow again. And keep your meetings in the name of him that never fell, which is above all the meetings of Adam’s sons and daughters in the fall. And keep in the fellowship in the gospel, which is the power of God, which was before the devil was; and this fellowship is above all the national fellowships in the fall of Adam. And keep in the worship of the Father in the spirit and in the truth, which the devil is out of, and in that ye will live in the truth and spirit in yourselves, and walk in unity in the same; and then ye are over all the will-worships in the fall of Adam, where they are in the strife about them. And who are come to the church in God, do see above all the churches of Adam in the fall, drove from God. And as the outward Jews suffered by the outward Egyptians and Babylonians, and they persecuted them and killed their children; so the spiritual Egyptians and mystery Babylon persecute and would kill the Jews in spirit, that worship God in the spirit, whose praise is of God, and not of man, and such have none from fallen men, but by them are persecuted. But all such go, as dumb before their shearers; for he that gave his back and his cheek to the smiters, overcame, and reigns, and hath the victory and the honour, who is Christ, the amen, the first and last, the top and corner stone; in him sit down, in life, and peace, and rest. So no more, but my love in the everlasting seed, the second Adam, that never fell nor changed, whose love is above all the love in Adam’s house in the fall.






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The New Ministry: an introduction to a lecture from Lewis Benson

First, they must be made alive by Christ, [who] is alive and liveth forevermore … and quickened by him, before they…can be ministers of the spirit, [and] be able to receive heavenly and spiritual things….So, all must be called by Christ…out of the world…and receive his power, spirit and grace and truth and faith [before] they can preach Christ…. They must see him and know him and hear his voice, and have spiritual things from him …and they must all receive their gifts from him for the work of their ministry….It is Jesus Christ that doth make and ordain…ministers by his power and spirit. (from “The Call to the Ministry,” a 1671 paper by George Fox)

“The New Ministry” is the title of  the sixth lecture in the series Rediscovering the Teaching of George Fox given by Lewis Benson in 1982 at Moorestown (N.J.) Meeting. Having begun with some preliminary comments on the history of studies and efforts to rejuvenate vocal ministry since the mid-19th century as well as references to present-day, alternative interpretations of ministry work, Benson moves on to the lecture’s main purpose: “to explore the implications for us today of the Everlasting Gospel that Fox preached, and especially to learn how it may bring us closer to the practice and experience of a living ministry.”

Fox believed that the preaching and receiving of the everlasting gospel would lead to the recovery of all that had been lost since the apostles’ days. Benson states that it was recognized that “‘many through his [Fox’s] ministry were turned from darkness to light… for he did not preach himself but Jesus Christ.’ Fox declared that ‘the work of the ministry [is] to bring people to the knowledge of the son of God.'”

Benson expands on the nature of gospel ministry work. He briefly covers the qualifications of a gospel minister (seen in the opening quotation given above) and speaks of the different approaches required for ministering to different groups of people. Ministering to the world (“breaking up the clods”) is different from ministering to settled meetings (“keeping the sheep”). Whether threshing, plowing, or keeping the sheep, gospel ministers were intensely dedicated to their work. Meetings–both home and those visited–understood, valued, and supported prophetic, itinerant, non-professional ministers in their work, caring for their practical and personal needs.

One example of the latter is a recounting of an opportunity given Benson as a young minister, his receiving personal affirmation from a highly esteemed older minister. It was a memorable event for Benson that confirmed the weighty and wonderful calling he had been given.

Necessary to include in a talk on prophetic Quaker ministry is some discussion of its demise. Benson writes (in the early ’80s): “there are now very few who have knowledge from experience of the itinerant, prophetic, non-professional Quaker ministry. People have just never met a minister of the type that was characteristic of the Quaker ministry in the 18th or 19th centuries…We know about it only by hearsay.”

Benson ends this talk with an affirmation of gospel ministry’s power to enliven and restore the true beginning and purpose of the original Quaker movement, as well as that of the apostles, which is to turn people from darkness to light through preaching the Word of God. The talk concludes:

Now that the everlasting gospel is being preached once more, this will certainly lead to a better understanding of the ministry that belongs to this gospel and to the new covenant. The preaching of this gospel has begun to stimulate interest in the nature of Quaker ministry, and this is sure to be the case wherever the everlasting gospel is preached and received.

Benson’s lecture can be found here.

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The Cross in Quaker Faith

And as Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, even so must the Son of man be lifted up: that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have eternal life [Jn. 3:14-15].

For Friends, the historic event of the cross is only a part of the fulfillment of God’s plan; the actual atonement takes place within the human heart. Though the cross shows a fulfillment of the prophets and the Law, Friends claim that the fulfillment of the prophets’ words and actions is the experiential knowledge of Christ risen within, that the inward event is the resurrection to eternal life. In the opening quotation, Jesus refers to three consecutive dispensations, and in this essay I want to show the sequential and progressive relationship among them.

To help envision the incremental process leading to completion, we can imagine a jointed spyglass with three parts or tubes that collapse together. As the parts extend one-by-one, greater vision is gained. For the first part, Jesus draws from Israel’s history: Moses’s lifting up the brass serpent in the wilderness. Jesus then ties this event to the cross on Calvary: the lifting up of the Son of man. The final segment is inward and spiritual, rather than outward and historical. Whoever believes in this lifted up (resurrected) Son of man has eternal life and does not perish. Later in the Gospel of John, eternal life is defined as “know(ing) the only true God” (Jn. 17:3). Jesus’s end goal is to have others enter a particular awareness or “knowing,” an inward state.

Prefiguring the Cross

First, we’ll examine the event from Israel’s history. We turn to the people of Israel led by the prophet Moses through the wilderness:

And they journeyed from mount Hor by the way of the Red Sea, to compass the land of Edom: and the soul of the people was much discouraged because of the way. And the people spake against God, and against Moses, wherefore have ye brought us up out of Egypt to die in the wilderness? For there is no bread, neither is there any water; and our soul loatheth this light bread. And the Lord sent fiery serpents among the people, and they bit the people; and much people of Israel died (Num. 21: 4-6).

Because the journey was hard, the Hebrews came to regret their reliance upon God who had brought them out of Egypt for what seemed to them no other reason than to die. They spoke against their Creator and thus alienated themselves from the source of life. The serpents bite; the people die. Seeing the consequences and confessing their error, they reaffirm their dependence and seek to re-establish their connection to God through their prophet. They ask for life, that the death-bringing serpents be taken away:

Therefore the people came to Moses and said, We have sinned, for we have spoken against the Lord, and against thee; pray unto the Lord, that he take away the serpents from us (Num. 21:7).

The serpents are left to plague them, though God does give an antidote to the poison, and they overcome death:

And the Lord said unto Moses, Make thee a fiery serpent, and set it upon a pole: and it shall come to pass that everyone that is bitten, when he looketh upon it shall live. And Moses made a serpent of brass, and put it upon a pole, and it came to pass, that if a serpent had bitten any man, when he beheld the serpent of brass, he lived (Num. 21:8-9).

This story is rich with information about the relationship between God and humanity; no wonder it sprang to Jesus’s mind! God would have the people in relationship with Him, even providing for their restoration after they have separated themselves from Him. The Hebrews recognize their error—their sin; they petition for help and then obey God’s command. The relationship is restored, and God can work with them once again. The event itself is mysterious. The restoration to life occurs when the people obey the command to look at the raised brass serpent. To cast their gaze, to behold the serpent of brass, is to overcome death. The people’s attention is refocused away from their mortal plight and toward that which God has provided. We can see some foreshadowing of what is to come—the Son of man lifted up.

The Cross on Calvary

Quaker understanding of the cross differs from that of other Christian ideas. However, in the year before the great opening that revealed Christ alive, present, and speaking to his condition,  George Fox described the significance of the crucifixion in this way:

At that time the sins of all mankind were upon him, and their iniquities and transgressions with which he was wounded, which he was to bear, and to be an offering for them as he was man, but died not as he was God; and so, in that he died for all men, and tasted death for every man, he was an offering for the sins of the whole world (Journal, 5).

John Curtis, a New Foundation Fellowship worker, noted in his study guide to Fox’s Journal that this description is very like the “well-expressed view which is held by many types of Christians.” With his opening in 1647, Fox’s understanding changed, leading him to differ from other Christians in holding that the essential sacrifice and atonement must occur within each human heart, a sacrifice prefigured on Calvary. Fox writes:

In the flesh without them [in history], he [Christ] is their example or figure, [while] “Christ in his people is the substance of all figures, types, and shadows, fulfilling them in them, and setting them free from them (Works, 3:592-3).

Jesus’s submission in Gethsemane  (“nevertheless not as I will, but as thou [wilt],” [Mt. 26:39]) must be our own, if the actual reconciliation or atonement is to follow.

It is separation from God that is the problem to be overcome and to which all solutions allude: the brass serpent, the cross on Calvary, and the inward submission to God. And each situation calls for a re-direction of intention. In the wilderness, the people are to cast their gaze upward toward the raised ensign of the brass serpent. People are likewise to cast their gaze to the historic cross, and further, to recognize that the Son of man has taken on their situation, has assumed humanity’s spiritual state. In both of these situations, there has been a shift in people’s awareness: In the first, people simply behold the uplifted ensign; while in the second, they not only behold the uplifted one but become beholden to the one who has acted on their behalf. Greater ties result, reaching into the inner man—to his sense of gratitude and obligation for the sacrifice that has been offered on his behalf.

The Cross, the Power of God

Friends have recognized that more than gratitude and obligation are required of humankind; it is eternal life to which we are called—that we may know the only true God (Jn. 17:3). This is the final and end purpose of the plan of which the first two developments have been described. How different is the account of the inward atonement from that of Fox’s earlier explanation of the outward cross on Calvary! And yet, in his description, Fox returns to the outward event as the corporeal model of his experience:

None know the atonement of Christ but by the light within…Mark! He saith, the light is that which gives the knowledge, and the light within doth not set up another atonement: but they that deny the light within set up another atonement than Christ. We should be made free from the law of sin and death while we are upon the earth. And here the blood of Jesus is witnessed, and the atonement, and the Father and the son; and this is all seen with the light within (Works, 3:121).

The seventeenth-century Puritans objected to this claim. The Quakers call the light within Christ the redeemer, and thereby, the Puritans said, the Quakers had set up an idol, which denied the things that God had already done for humanity. Quakers countered this attack with the assertion that they did not deny the person of Christ but vouched for the re-enacting of his historic work within the heart. Says Isaac Penington:

That charge of thine on us, that we deny the person of Christ, and make him nothing but a light or notion, a principle in the heart of man, is very unjust and untrue; for we own that appearance of him in his body of flesh, his sufferings and death, and his sitting at the Father’s right hand in glory: but then we affirm, that there is no true knowledge of him, or union with him, but in the seed or principle of his life in the heart, and that therein he appears, subdues sin, and reigns over it, in those that understand and submit to the teaching and government of his Spirit (Quaker Spirituality, 144).

But what if the inward experience does not occur? What if there is no comprehension of the cross as an inward condition, no owning it as a just paradigm for our limited and alienated state? Instead, what if the cross on Calvary is revered with a false confidence, which claims to stand in good stead in the here-and-now and in the hereafter? If the cross is viewed as a culminating historic event by which we are somehow mysteriously reconciled to God, it does become an idol.

If we return for a moment to the brass serpent and locate its whereabouts sometime later, well after it has served its intended purpose, we find it under the censure of the prophet Hezekiah. He saw that the brass serpent had become an idol for the Hebrew people, and so he destroyed it:

He removed the high places, and brake the images, and cut down the groves, and brake in pieces the brazen serpent that Moses had made, for unto those days the children of Israel did burn incense to it (2 Kings 18:4).

On the other hand, what if the cross is set aside as irrelevant and given no place within present-day Liberal Quaker faith and practice? Dismissing this reference point of the cross (and thereby denying the reality of the sin and alienation that it is meant to overcome) do we not humor ourselves into claiming that our best efforts and intentions are already divinely inspired? Remember the error–the profound human error–made by the Hebrews in the desert: we usurp God’s wisdom and authority and replace them with our own lesser capacities. Says Rufus Jones:

If any supposes that Friends have inclined to be “humanists” and to assume that man is so inherently good that he can lift himself by his own belt into a life of consummate truth and beauty, he has not yet caught the deeper note of Quaker faith (Quaker Spirituality, 278).

The “deeper note” to which Jones refers is the cross,“the power of God,” as Fox reminds us. By the power of God, which is known only through the inward cross, can we carry forward the hope and obligation enjoined upon us.

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Increase Our Faith (Some observations on Luke 17:1-10)

Then said he unto the disciples, It is impossible but that offences will come: but woe unto him, through whom they come! It were better for him that a millstone were hanged about his neck, and he cast into the sea, than that he should offend one of these little ones. Take heed to yourselves: If thy brother trespass against thee, rebuke him; and if he repent, forgive him. And if he trespass against thee seven times in a day, and seven times in a day turn again to thee, saying, I repent; thou shalt forgive him. And the apostles said unto the Lord, Increase our faith (Lk. 17:1-5).

One of the more difficult facts of life is that “offences will come.” Being on the receiving end of an offense and mulling over the injustice suffered from another’s selfish or wicked act, one is likely to find that one’s equanimity and focus have been lost. This loss of orientation is recognized and conveyed in a more literal translation of the first verse of this passage:

It is impossible that there should come no causes to make man go astray (The New Testament, Lattimore).

This literal rendering foregrounds the danger to the soul that results from having undergone an offense: the wounded soul may “go astray.” Having suffered injury, the soul is tempted to covet and use power to restore its broken equanimity in what seems like just retribution. Brandishing power over others in order to restore sense of self perpetuates the offense. And this dynamic repeated indefinitely becomes a de facto principle ungirding human interaction, and results in a world of fear, anger, and misuse of power. “The whole world lieth in wickedness”(1 Jn. 5:19), thereby ensuring that, as Jesus said, “offenses will come.”

In this passage, Jesus walks his disciples through this problem and into the solution. He begins by addressing the issue of justice: the offender has trespassed a boundary; violated an understood agreement, spoken or not; and caused misery to another who is innocent. Though accountable, he himself seems not to have suffered at all. Not so, says Jesus; there is justice within, and the offender can expect great misery:

woe unto him, through whom [offenses] come! It were better for him that a millstone were hanged about his neck and he cast into the sea, than that he should offend one of these little ones (1, 2).

Being sunk into the darkness and chaos of the sea (with a millstone necklace!) with no  firm ground nor hope of life is the justice meted out to the offender’s soul. The victim’s sense that the miscreant should suffer for his misdeed as much or more than he himself has suffered is satisfied by Jesus’s pronouncement; in the soul, justice is served. Not only does this vivid image of punishment reassure the victim that an equal or greater suffering will come to the wrongdoer, but it also warns him to stand guard against the temptation to likewise become an offender and undergo such a punishment himself. Jesus would put a stop to the chain reaction of victim becoming offender.

Assuring the disciples that inward justice will always be in force, Jesus stills the impulse to take retribution, to pay back. As an alternative to this natural destructive impulse, he then sets out a rightly ordered procedure for handling offenses:

Take heed to yourselves: If thy brother trespass against thee, rebuke him; and if he repent, forgive him. And if he trespass against thee seven times in a day, and seven times in a day turn again to thee, saying, I repent; thou shalt forgive him (3 and 4).

The soul speaking truth to power disencumbers itself of the burden of injustice and puts it in the open. Should the offense have been unintended, the misunderstanding is brought to light and can be explained. If the wrongdoer recognizes that he’s overstepped the boundary, behaved unjustly, and in the future is willing to abide by agreed limits–signaled by his repentance–then forgiving is in order. Conversely, if there’s a refusal to recognize acceptable limits and no repentance forthcoming, the relationship is not to be restored.

These are all principles that can be practiced using the powers available to our nature: reason and conscience can get us this far. Beyond the restoration of relationship by truth-telling and re-affirming social boundaries, however, is a call to handle offenses in a way that requires more than human ability. Jesus calls us and the disciples to this new way: to reframe the event and see it differently; to see it through the perspective of faith, rather than perspective of our limited worldly nature. Doing so will enable us to see that we can lose nothing that can truly affect our well-being.

When the events of life are seen through the eye of faith, one cannot be deprived of anything necessary for one’s happiness. If one’s treasure is in heaven, can anyone break in and steal? No. It is only when there is a failure to see that one’s treasure is in heaven that one can be rattled or devitalized by worldly loss. Living in faith, no power or principalities,

nor things present, nor things to come, nor height, nor depth, nor any other creature shall be able to separate us from the love of God which is in Christ Jesus our Lord (Rom. 8:38-9).

Living in a world where offenses inevitably come, the disciples feel their well-being to be under threat. They also intuit that faith is the sole guarantee of their inward peace…if they just had enough of it. So sensibly, they ask of Jesus: “Increase our faith” (Lk. 17:5). Jesus responds:

If ye had faith as a grain of mustard seed, ye might say unto this sycamine tree, Be thou plucked up by the root, and be thou planted in the sea; and it should obey you (6).

Implied in the apostles’ request for increased faith is the assumption they already have a certain degree of faith, and they just need more. Jesus corrects them: If they had even a tiny amount of faith (even as “a grain of mustard seed”) they could do a mighty act of power: they could command a tree to uproot itself and be “planted in the sea; and it should obey.” (Note the echoing imagery: the offender who sinks in the sea [2] and the tree, which, through faith, can thrive there [6].)  Man’s lack of faith entails a lack of power over nature: his own human nature. Without faith, Man has no power to avoid disorder and weakness, and he sinks into the chaos of external threats, the offences that are bound to come, and into the ocean of darkness.

Having faith, he can thrive even when planted in the chaos of the world that lies in wickedness, even as a sycamine tree could be planted in a hostile environment of the sea. Having faith, the hearing/obeying relationship with his Creator, Man is restored, strengthened, and empowered to withstand and rise above such assaults upon his soul. He is given the power of God to rule over his human nature and to thrive regardless of the circumstances.

Though the disciples think they already have faith and simply need more, Jesus knows faith to be something other than what the disciples understand by the word. Likewise, the seventeenth-century Friends carefully distinguished the difference between what was commonly thought to be faith and the meaning given to the word by Jesus. Penington asserts (emphasis his):

That the true faith (the faith of the gospel, the faith of the elect, the faith which saves the sinner from sin, and makes him more than a conqueror over sin and the powers of darkness) is a belief in the nature of God; which belief giveth entrance into, fixeth in and causeth an abiding in that nature….And nothing can believe in the nature, but what is one with the nature. So then faith is not a believing the history of the scripture…or a believing that Christ died for sinners in general, or for me in particular…but a uniting to the nature of God in Christ (Works, I: 239-40).

Faith is “a belief in the nature of God”…which causes “an abiding in that nature.” It is “a uniting to the nature of God in Christ” that is the true faith which keeps us in peace, empowered to withstand all the assaults that will come. In the final verses of this passage, Jesus instructs the disciples in the way to receive faith.

But which of you, having a servant plowing or feeding cattle, will say unto him by and by, when he is come from the field, Go and sit down to meat? And will not rather say unto him, Make ready wherewith I may sup, and gird thyself, and serve me, till I have eaten and drunken; and afterward thou shalt eat and drink? Doth he thank that servant because he did the things that were commanded him? I trow not. So likewise ye, when ye shall have done all those things which are commanded you, say, We are unprofitable servants; we have done that which was our duty to do (Lk. 17:5-10).

Jesus is telling his disciples to attend to the work that is set before them and not to get ahead of themselves. As is often the case, Jesus uses rhetoric to make his point. Notice the shift in point of view in this passage indicated by the use of different pronouns: first, Jesus puts the disciples in the position of master (“But which of you, having a servant”); second, the pronoun shifts from the second to the third person, and the master is referred as “he,” no longer as “you” (“Doth he thank that servant”); and third, Jesus moves to the first person pronoun “we,” thus putting the disciples in the position not of the master, nor the onlooker, but of the servant (“say, We are unprofitable servants”).  Jesus has gently moved the disciples to seeing themselves as servants rather than seeing themselves as masters, the latter being their natural inclination. Faith is the hearing/obeying relationship with our Creator, and we are not our own masters, though we have claimed to be so since the Fall.

We are to serve righteousness, whether instructed by the conscience or later by the law of faith to serve the Lord our Righteousness (Jer. 23:6); that is our duty. That duty will vary from person to person, but the rigorous standard of adhering to what is true and right does not vary from person to person. That standard is righteousness, and the soul must hunger and thirst after it, that it may be filled with faith. It is the sincerity of pursuit that is judged by Christ. We cannot obtain righteousness ourselves, any more than we can judge ourselves; we are subject to judgment. We, however, can and must do, like the servants in this parable, “all those things which are commanded” to us, laboring inoffensively and honestly that we may in faith come to cease from our own works.

For he that is entered into his rest, he also hath ceased from his own works, as God did from his. Let us labour therefore to enter into that rest, lest any man fall after the same example of unbelief. For the word of God is quick, and powerful, and sharper than any twoedged sword, piercing even to the dividing asunder of soul and spirit, and of the joints and marrow, and is a discerner of the thoughts and intents of the heart. Neither is there any creature that is not manifest in his sight: but all things are naked and opened unto the eyes of him with whom we have to do (Heb. 4:10-13).



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To Stand Still in the Light

In him was life; and the life was the light of men. And the light shineth in darkness; and the darkness comprehended it not (Jn. 1:4-5).

In the prologue of the fourth gospel there is a reverent announcement of a profound mystery: the one who created us in his image would restore us to our rightful place, full of life and light. The light, a specific power and presence, may be discovered within each of us while we yet live. Although the light shines without ceasing, it may go unseen indefinitely, for an invisible and obdurate darkness prevents our seeing, our recognition. Were it not for God’s grace working within us and within history, we would continue in this natural state where we do not receive the abundant life that he would have us know. Instead we would subsist on the sporadic tranquility afforded by the realization of our fleeting desires.

In this essay I want to present some ideas that are basic to understanding Quaker faith by discussing passages taken from John’s Gospel. First, we’ll examine the natural condition in which we are obstructed, a state from which we can be fully released only by Christ’s inwardly experienced return. Second, we will focus on the particular work of two of Jesus’s disciples: Peter and John. In reviewing their roles in chapter 21, we can see how the two are prepared to work jointly in a complementary way to bring in the kingdom of God.


By command from the Lord, George Fox was sent “to turn people from darkness to the light that they might receive Christ Jesus” (Journal, 34), and thus began the Quaker movement with its mission to bear witness to the light that overcomes darkness. Drawing heavily from statements in the fourth gospel, Fox describes the light’s effect upon the self-awareness of those who come to know it.

The true light which John bore witness to was the life in Christ the Word, by which all things were made and created. And it was called the light in man and woman, which was the true light which had enlightened every man that came into the world, which was a heavenly and divine light which let them see all their evil words and deeds and their sins, and the same light would let them see Christ their savior, from whence it came to save them from their sin and to blot it out (Journal, 303).

The light which lets one see Christ also allows and requires one to see the “evil words and deeds and…sins” that hitherto we have hidden from our sight. Fox is in accord with the passage in John: the light is stronger and more complete than the darkness. It can and does reveal what darkness has hidden. Both the book of John and Fox’s writings underscore the superior power of the light that can withstand and dispel the condition of darkness. Whether the light is discovered inwardly or preached outwardly to others still in the darkened state, its power prevails.

It is this language of all-or-nothing light or darkness, good or evil that may fall heavy and foreign on our modern ears. We may not be at ease thinking of others or ourselves as sinful. If we have come from other than Quaker Christian traditions, traditions which claim that sin is inescapable throughout one’s life, it may seem an intolerable as well as archaic doctrine. If we neglect to learn what early Quakers meant by sin, we may miss out on the opportunity to grasp the message in their writings.

But if we were to take a fresh look at what they meant by this word “sin,” seeing it as an overriding and unconscious weakness and failure rather than specific destructive behaviors, we then might recognize and own it for both ourselves and others with feelings of compassion and forgiveness. If sin referred to an absence of spiritual power (as darkness is an absence of light) rather than a display of worldly control, might we then recognize it in ourselves? Would that awareness of our need help to open up and give place to wisdom that former ages have known and recorded? Would we see that Christ is necessary for us and for all?

In this passage from a sermon on the unbelief and muteness of Zechariah, we see Karl Barth, a theologian of the last century, sensing our need and giving voice to our perplexity:

Yes, we certainly talk with each other, we find words all right, but never the right words; never the words that would really do justice to what actually moves us, what actually lives in us; never the words that would really lead us out of the loneliness in which we find ourselves; never the words through which a community would really come about, and through the community that life that we lack. Our talk is always such an imperfect, wooden, dead talk; fire will not break out in it, but can only smolder in our words, others certainly notice that we mean something, but not what we mean, that we want something, but not what we want. They may well understand us, but they always understand us falsely. Ah, the misunderstandings that constantly creep in on both sides. Why is it that we actually interpret, perhaps must interpret every third word someone else says other than how he meant it? Why can’t a person express himself more clearly? Or why can’t a person listen more carefully? And so we speak, but our speech is like that of a mute. It seems that most of what we say, it’s as if it were never said.

Barth is sensing a veil of darkness that separates us from our intentions, a veil that words cannot penetrate and leaves us isolated, resentful, and anxious. And aren’t these the emotions, the inward condition, that often lead to behaviors we might recognize as sinful? It is the inward state, darkened, veiled, isolated, and alienated that Christ the light restores to wholeness. It is a transformation needed by all people, for it is the natural condition of all. It is Christ, the Word, which lifts us from the emptiness of our own words and establishes us on unshakeable ground where reality and utterance are perfectly conjoined.

Language undermined by loss of meaning is not solely a problem of our time; in the following passage, we see Fox suffered it as well:

And I was afraid of all carnal talk and talkers, for I could see nothing but corruptions, and the life lay under the burden of corruptions. And when I myself was in the deep, under all shut up, I could not believe that I should ever overcome; my troubles, my sorrows, and my temptations were so great, that I thought many times I should have despaired, I was so tempted (Journal, 12).

Lack of right understanding, lack of meaning and the human spirit reacts, often in the seeming sabotage of depression. It is most clearly in language, which depends upon sounds to bear meaning that we notice our famished and weakened state. But though the weakened condition is present in all, the hunger is not always so keenly felt as it was with Fox. In the same passage of his Journal, Fox goes on to say:

And I saw professors, priests, and people were whole and at ease in that condition which was my misery, and they loved that which I would have been rid of (12).

These words are echoed by another prophetic voice of our time, that of Lewis Benson, one of the founders of New Foundation Fellowship. In his book Catholic Quakerism, he asks:

How long can men live in a moral vacuum? …How long can men be content to let life happen to them without agonizing over its meaning? Apparently millions of people can put up with this state of affairs for a very long time. But the human spirit eventually rebels against a comfortable, secure, but meaningless existence. Man was not created to live in a state of peace without understanding (70).

Annulled meaning in life or words is not always foisted upon us; sometimes it is chosen. Where there is intent to sever words from their meaning, there is a lie. It is interesting to note in chapter eight of John that when Jesus describes malevolence incarnate, he speaks not of the absence of love but rather the violation of truth. He says that the devil

Abode not in the truth, because there is no truth in him. When he speaketh a lie, he speaketh of his own; for he is a liar, and the father of it (Jn. 8:44).

Jesus assigns the harshest possible designation to the intentional severance of words from meaning. We can therefore construe his intent and purpose to be just the reverse: to ally words with that which is real, to ground utterance in meaning, to root words in the Truth. And yes, just before his execution, we see the ultimate hero summarize his life. Jesus stands before Pilate and avows:

To this end was I born and for this cause came I into the world, that I should bear witness unto the truth (Jn. 18:37).



To bear witness unto the truth that dispels confusion and deceit, to bear witness to the light that shines in the darkness is to continue Christ’s work on earth. But first there must be some preparation for that work. So let us now turn to the final chapter in the book of John, where Jesus assigns tasks to Peter and to John to perform after he has departed and ascended into heaven. Each disciple has his own work, which differs from the other, and each disciple undergoes preparation for the work. Though the work will be different, the preparation is similar. The disciples must see themselves as they are; they must be open to what the light reveals about them, and so there is some discomfort.

Peter grieves as he is walked backward through his tri-fold denial of Jesus before the cock crew by means of a tri-fold affirmation of his love, devotion, and commitment. And Jesus forewarns him that he will suffer crucifixion in the end. These difficult truths, Peter accepts. There is significance in the change of names in this passage, from Simon to Peter. As truth is revealed and the disciple comes to see himself as he truly is, he is transformed from the carnal man, Simon, to the spiritual man, Peter. It is a new identity.

Simon, son of Jonas, lovest thou me more than these? He saith unto him, Yea, Lord; thou knowest that I love thee. He saith unto him, Feed my lambs. He saith to him again the second time, Simon, son of Jonas, lovest thou me? He saith unto him, Yea, Lord; thou knowest that I love thee. He saith unto him, Feed my sheep. He saith unto him the third time, Simon, son of Jonas, lovest thou me? Peter was grieved because he said unto him the third time, Lovest thou me? And he said unto him, Lord thou knowest all things; thou knowest that I love thee. Jesus saith unto him. Feed my sheep. Verily, verily, I say unto thee, when thou wast young, thou girdedst thyself, and walkedst whither thou wouldest: but when thou shalt be old, thou shalt stretch forth thy hands, and another shall gird thee, and carry thee whither thou wouldest not. This spake he, signifiying by what death he should glorify God. And when he had spoken this, he saith unto him, Follow me (Jn. 21:15-19).

Preparing Peter entails Christ’s leading this disciple to recognize the painful truth about the condition of his heart, of his character. Has John been similarly prepared for his work? Has he seen himself in truth? If it is so that grief and discomfort accompany the recognition of one’s true state, and these difficult feelings about oneself must precede the coming of Christ Within, then where is the evidence that this has taken place within John?

We are given only two pieces of information about John in this passage: 1) he is the disciple whom Jesus loved, and 2) he leaned on Jesus’s breast at the last supper and asked which disciple would betray him.

Then Peter, turning about seeth the disciple whom Jesus loved following; which also leaned on his breast at supper, and said, Lord, which is he that betrayeth thee (Jn. 21:20)?

This is the disciple who in seeking the truth took the initiative to ask a risky question. It may not seem risky to us, because we know the answer: that it was Judas who betrayed Jesus, not John. But at the time John asked this question, he did not know that it was not he himself who would be singled out as the culprit rather than another. He courageously asked and left himself open and vulnerable to the answer. Though the truth might have devastated his self-concept and caused him grief (as it did Peter when he was confronted with the truth of himself), still John unlike Peter, sought out the truth for the love of it.

This is the cross, to love the truth more than self, to let false self-centered importance fall away, so that the truth can be known, to seek it out with one’s heart, mind, soul, and strength. John risked hearing that he himself was the son of perdition. Before Christ Within appears, so must we all acknowledge the man or woman of sin revealed within.

Then I asked them, seeing Judas, who betrayed Christ and was called the son of perdition, had hanged himself, what son of perdition was that which Paul spoke of, that sat in the temple of God, exalted above all that is called God, and what temple of God that was in which this son of perdition sat, and whether he that betrays Christ within, in himself, be not one in nature with that Judas that betrayed Christ without (Journal, 146).


We have seen that the preparation for continuing Christ’s work is the same for both Peter and John; it is to see themselves as they truly are. Now let us look at the work each is given to do, how that work is determined by their particular strengths and capacities, and how the work of each is a necessary part of bringing heaven to earth.

After the scene is set in chapter 21 with location and character identified, the dialogue begins:


Simon Peter saith unto them, I go a fishing. They [the disciples] say unto him, We also go with thee. They went forth, and entered into a ship immediately; and that night they caught nothing (Jn. 21:3).

Peter, the man of action, leads the disciples. It is he who announces the decision to fish; the rest of the group follows.  Mentioned first in this chapter, Peter has a prominent role from the outset in this story, while John, the disciple whom Jesus loved, is not distinguished from the others until verse seven. It is John who is the first to recognize the Lord. “Therefore that disciple whom Jesus loved saith unto Peter, It is the Lord” (Jn. 21:7). Through his ability to recognize—to see and to know—John mediates between the Lord and Peter, allowing the latter to move toward the Lord with an assurance and dramatic gesture that befits a leader: Peter casts himself into the sea to swim to shore, while the others follow in the boat. As a seer, John has exercised his capacity to direct the group and its leader to the Lord.

The work given to each Peter and John is fitted to their individual abilities: John is a seer of the Lord; his function is prophetic: to see and state where the Lord is to be found. His work is to tarry: to wait till the Lord appears within his sight, so that he can inform the others. As a result of John’s sight—his prophetic insight—Peter can act with discernment and direction.

Peter doesn’t see as well as John; in fact, he doesn’t see that John is doing any work at all. Peter asks of Jesus: “and what shall this man [John] do?”  Jesus challenges Peter by responding, “If I will that he tarry till I come, what is that to thee?” He then goes on to say, “Follow thou me”(Jn. 21:20-21), exhorting Peter to attend to what he can see and the work he’s been given to do:  the shepherding and caring for the flock, that is, attending to the spiritual need of others. These two disciples—one facing toward the Lord and relaying his insight to the other who is facing toward the world—together form a bridge between heaven and earth, and together work to bring the one to the other.

No organizational affiliation, be it Christian, Quaker, or New Foundation Fellowship can substitute for the inward practice of waiting patiently to receive the truth about oneself. No honorable intentions, good works, noble words, or friendly behavior can bring access to God: nothing will do but a humble willingness to stand still in the light to hear what it reveals. It is the necessary preparation that enables us to participate fully in Christ’s work. In this passage from the Journal, Fox walks us through the process whereby we prepare ourselves for this holy encounter:

For I turned them to the divine light of Christ and his spirit that let them see all their thoughts, words, and actions, that were evil, that they had thought or spoken, or acted; with which light they might see their sins and with the same light they might see their savior, Christ Jesus, to save them from their sins, and that there was their first step to peace—to stand still in the light that showed their sin and transgressions and showed them how they were strangers to the covenant of promise, without God in the world, and in the Fall of old Adam, and in the darkness and death; and with the same light they may see Christ that died for them, who is their way to God and their redeemer and savior (Journal, 117).

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